What to do with larger proteins?

Larger proteins ( > 150 AA)

(1) Overcrowded spectra = too much information

(2) Fast relaxation = poor signal

How to fix?

(1) Technology: better electronics, bigger magnets, cold RF circuitry. Make magnets look like spaceships?

(2) Theory: Improved experiments ('TROSY' effect, non-linear data acquisition)

(3) Isotope labeling


see comparison of isotope properties

The first thing to do:

This experiment is similar to COSY and is called HSQC (heteronuclear quantum coherence spectroscopy)


Build a 3D-NOESY on top of that -> 3D NOESY-HSQC


a lot more to this story.... replace 12C with 13C, only label certain amino acids or certain sidechain groups ...

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Thanks: Hari Athanari, Dmitri Ivanov, Assen Marintchev, Taku Ito, Dominique Frueh, Mike Hemmond, Jim Sun, Sunghyouk Park, and Malcolm Levitt.
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